The metabolic specificity of BMT’s exercise and training regimens is based on our expertise in bioenergetics, the production and use of energy by the human body. Energy stored in the chemical bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is used to power muscular activity. The replenishment of ATP in human skeletal muscle is accomplished by three energy systems: phosphagen, glycolytic, and oxidative. There is an inverse relationship between the relative rate and total amount of ATP that a given energy system can produce. As a result, the phosphagen energy system primarily supplies ATP for high-intensity activities of short duration (100m sprint), the glycolytic system for moderate- to high intensity activities of short to medium duration (400m sprint), and the oxidative system for low-intensity activities of long duration (marathon). At no time during any form of exercise does any single energy system provide the complete supply of energy. The extent to which each of the three energy systems contributes to ATP production depends primarily on the intensity of muscular activity and secondarily on the duration. This fundamental principle is the basis upon which BMT designs its sport-specific training programs. Our use of appropriate exercise intensities and rest intervals allows for the selection of specific energy systems during training and results in more efficient and productive regimens for specific athletic events with various metabolic demands.
Energy substrates are molecules that provide starting materials for bioenergetic reactions, and include phosphagens (ATP and creatine phosphate), glucose, glycogen, free fatty acids, amino acids, and lactate. These are selectively depleted during sports of various intensities and durations. Subsequently, the energy that the athlete’s bioenergetic system is capable of producing is diminished. Fatigue experienced during high intensity activities is commonly associated with the depletion of phosphagens and glycogen. Consequently, the depletion and repletion pattern of phosphagens and glycogen following physical activity is vital in exercise and sport bioenergetics, and forms the basis of BMTs’ nutritional interventions.
BMTs’ research into the mechanisms causing fatigue, one of the factors limiting maximal performance during an athletic event, is integrated into the design of training programs to delay fatigue. Glycogen depletion can be a limiting factor both for long-duration, low-intensity exercise supported primarily by aerobic metabolism and for repeated, very high-intensity exercise supported primarily by anaerobic mechanisms. Of additional importance to anaerobic activities is the effect of lactic acid and increased tissue hydrogen ion concentration in both indirectly and directly limiting contractile force. Several other factors have been implicated in the development of muscle fatigue that may limit exercise performance, including increased intracellular inorganic phosphate, increased ADP, and impaired calcium release into muscle cells.
Proper nutrition is an important consideration for athletes who seek to maximize their performance. A meticulously designed nutrition regimen enables athletes to train and compete to their genetic potential. The ideal nutrition for an athlete depends on many factors: age, body size, sex, genetics, environmental training conditions, and duration, frequency, and intensity of training. The best nutrition plan for an athlete is one that is individualized. There are two important dietary goals for athletes: eating to maximize performance and eating for optimal body composition. What an athlete eats before, during, and after training and competition can have both physiological and psychological effects on performance. Careful timing of ingested food based on the nature of the competition event and nutritional data such as the glycemic indices of foods, allows us to achieve these goals for our athletes.
The random selection and timing of supplements by most athletes constitutes a waste of time and money. In addition, reliance on incorrect, poorly combined, or poorly integrated ergogenic substances may distract the athlete’s attention from improving training techniques, and may produce side effects that emerge at the wrong time and hinder peak performance. It is essential to have a team with the proper medical and scientific backgrounds to manage these supplement regimens.
Vitamins and minerals have a critical impact on performance. During intense training there is an alteration in the tissue concentrations of vitamins and minerals, even though an athlete may be ingesting the recommended dietary intakes. The requirements for some vitamins are proportionate to the metabolic demands of exercise and the cumulative energy expense of training. However, many athletes assume that as metabolic demands increase and the amount of food eaten increases to compensate for the increased caloric expenditure, the extra food contains adequate concentrations of vitamins and minerals, but this is rarely true. BMT analyzes those components of biochemical pathways that are heavily relied upon in sport and determines the components that are rate limiting or are in short supply. We then address the repletion of these molecules in a customized supplement regimen.
Our supplement regimens also address the issue of body composition and weight control by keeping our athletes’ basal metabolic rate elevated throughout the day and by optimizing the timing and release of ingested nutrients from food. Finally, we research and utilize all compounds which have been demonstrated to play a role in reducing joint and muscle inflammation in order to promote recovery and prevent injury.